Falciparum смотреть последние обновления за сегодня на .
In this Video the Glideosome and Moving Junction model of Erythrocyte Invasion has been discussed. This invasion pathway is used by Plasmodium falciparum which is most dangerous of all species to cause lethal and life threatening malaria .The Merozoite has ligands on its surface which are interacted by R.B.C receptors.
In this videos we have discussed the Molecular Biology of P.Falciparum Inside Erythrocytes. The Rosette Formation and Sequestration are the main two phenomenon that occurs due to Plasmodium infection. TANK TREADING VIDEO : 🤍
The classification of Plasmodium spp is explained. Plasmodium falciparum morphology, life cycle, pathogenesis, clinical features and complications are covered in this video. Next video will be on Epidemiology, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention.
Walter and Eliza Hall Institute PhD Completion Seminar 13 July 2015 Ms Clara Lin Infection and Immunity division
This clip is an excerpt from a Hemepath Board Review video by special guest, Dr. Jeanette Ramos (full video here: 🤍 If you missed Dr. Ramos's first guest lecture discussing the histology and immunostaining patterns of non-neoplastic lymph nodes, check it out here: 🤍 If you like Dr. Ramos's cases and teaching style, be sure to follow UAMS Hematopathology on social media, as she often contributes to their accounts: - 🤍 - 🤍 This video is geared towards medical students, pathology/internal medicine/family practice residents, hematology or hematopathology fellows, or practicing pathologists or hematologists. Of course, this video is for educational purposes only and is not formal medical advice or consultation. Neither Dr. Ramos nor Dr. Gardner have any special inside knowledge of the content of the path/heme/hemepath/USMLE board examinations. This video is subjectively labeled as a "board review" purely because we believe these topics are potentially testable entities, not because we have any knowledge about the frequency that they will show up on actual board exams. Please subscribe to my channel to be notified of new pathology teaching videos. Follow me on: Snapchat: JMGardnerMD Twitter: 🤍JMGardnerMD Instagram: 🤍JMGardnerMD Kiko: 🤍 Facebook: 🤍
Primaquine can be used both to treat vivax malaria and to prevent the transmission of falciparum malaria from human to mosquito. A shorter and age-based primaquine regimen would reduce the burden of vivax malaria. It would also allow primaquine to be used more widely to block the transmission of falciparum malaria.
ARTICLE Title: Antiplasmodial activities of dyes against Plasmodium falciparum asexual and sexual stages: Contrasted uptakes of triarylmethanes Brilliant green, Green S (E142), and Patent Blue V (E131) by erythrocytes. Authors: Louis-Jérôme Leba, Jean Popovici, Yannick Estevez, Stéphane Pelleau, Eric Legrand, Lise Musset, Christophe Duplais. Published: August 2, 2017 / International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance (Elsevier) Check out the paper at 🤍 VIDEO ABSTRACT Production Company: In Motion Science (IMS) 🤍 / 2018
Severe Complicated Falciparum Malaria Treatment & Management, Symptoms, Complications, USMLE/NCLEX In this video i have explained treatment and management of severe complicated falciparum malaria. In this video i have explained how to give artesunate and quinine regimen. What are the symptoms and complications of severe malaria. Severe malaria is a highly tested topic on usmle and NCLEX exams as well as very important for doctors and nurses practicing in hospitals and clinic. Chapters: (Clickable) (0:00) Intro (0:25) What is Severe Complicated Malaria (2:16) Poor Prognostic Factors (3:09) Treatment (3:37) How to give Artesunate Regimen (4:42) Quinine Regimen & Sideeffects (6:56) How to Monitor Patient (7:48) Summary FOLLOW ME ON :) Instagram: 🤍 Facebook: 🤍 SUBSCRIBE TO MEDNERD FOR MORE INTERESTING VIDEOS Infectious Medicine Playlist: 🤍 Malaria Video: 🤍 Neurology Lectures Playlist: 🤍 Emergency Medicine Lectures Playlist : 🤍 TOXICOLOGY/POISONING LECTURES: 🤍 ATRIAL FIBRILLATION: 🤍 #malaria #severecomplicatedmalaria #malariatreatmentguidelines #symptomsmedicinelectureusmle/nclex #malariamanagement #malariatreatmentmedicine #severemalariatreatment #severemalariapathophysiology #managementofseveremalaria #falciparummalariacomplications #malariausmle #malariatreatment #quinineregimen #artesunateregimen artesunate dose,complicated malaria treatment,malaria nclex
PhD student James Thomas (UCL Division of Infection and Immunity/Francis Crick Institute) presents his research on how a protease cascade regulates egress of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum from the host red blood cell.
Video abstract of original research paper “Incomplete reversal of genotypic resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine after a decade of change in malaria treatment policy in Uganda” published in the open access journal Reports in Parasitology by authors Ocan et al. Background: The potential re-emergence of Plasmodium falciparum parasites sensitive to chloroquine provides an opportunity for the reintroduction of the drug in patient care. With the recent discovery and spread of artemisinin resistance in South east Asia, the emergence of chloroquine sensitivity gives hope for malaria treatment globally. In this study, we explored the prevalence of genotypic chloroquine resistant P. falciparum isolates collected from symptomatic patients in northern Uganda. Methods: Finger-prick capillary blood spotted on Whatman 903 filter papers were collected from adult symptomatic outpatients (≥18 years) in Lira and Gulu regional referral hospitals. Patients were screened for the presence of Plasmodium infection using rapid diagnostic test histidine rich protein-2 (HRP- 2) prior to blood sample collection. Parasite DNA was extracted from individual spots on the filter papers using chelex-resin method. Presence of mutations, Pfcrt K76T and Pfmdr N86Y were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. A total of 213 and 169 amplicons were analyzed for Pfcrt K76T and Pfmdr N86Y polymorphisms, respectively. The data were analyzed in an Excel 2007 spreadsheet. Results: A total of 89/213 (41.8%) of the P. falciparum isolates analyzed for Pfcrt K76T polymorphism had wild type (chloroquine sensitive) genotype (76K). The majority, 116/213 (54.4%) carried the mutant (chloroquine resistant) genotype 76T whereas 8/213 (3.8%) had mixed genotypes Pfcrt-76K/T (sensitive/resistant). For Pfmdr N86Y polymorphisms, the majority, 164/169 (97%) of the isolates had wild type (chloroquine sensitive) genotype Pfmdr 86N. A small proportion, (3/169) 1.8% had mutant (chloroquine resistant) genotype Pfmdr 86Y, whereas 2/169 (1.2%) samples had mixed genotypes Pfmdr1-86N/Y (sensitive/resistant). Conclusion: P. falciparum parasites with genotypic resistance to chloroquine have persisted in the population after more than a decade since the change of policy in Uganda. Read the original research paper here: 🤍
Walter and Eliza Hall Institute PhD Completion Seminar 17 June 2019 Dr Digjaya Utama Population Health and Immunity division
Watch the Full Video at 🤍 Request a trial to get instant access to our library of 14000+ scientific videos Protocol for Plasmodium falciparum Infections in Mosquitoes and Infection Phenotype Determination - 2 minute Preview of Experiment Protocol Once a gene is identified as potentially refractory for malaria, it must be evaluated for its role in preventing Plasmodium infections within the mosquito. This protocol illustrates how the extent of plasmodium infections of mosquitoes can be assayed. The techniques for preparing the gametocyte culture, membrane feeding mosquitoes human blood, and assaying viral titers in the mosquito midgut are demonstrated. Visit 🤍?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=social_global&utm_campaign=reseach-videos-2022 to explore our entire library of 14,000+ videos of laboratory methods and science concepts. JoVE is the world-leading producer and provider of science videos with the mission to improve scientific research and education. Millions of scientists, educators, and students at 1500+ institutions worldwide, including schools like Harvard and the University of Cambridge, benefit from using JoVE's extensive library of 14000 videos in their research and teaching. Follow JoVE on Twitter: 🤍 Like JoVE on Facebook: 🤍 Subscribe to our channel: 🤍
Two malaria transmission blocking vaccine antigens, pfs230 and pfs48/45 that are expressed on the surface of gametocytes elicit strong antibody responses and are good targets for transmission blocking vaccines but their mutability that will provide insights into important loci for vaccine efficacy is not fully elucidated. Using NGS data for 310 P. falciparum sequenced samples from five countries: Congo DR, Gambia, Ghana, Tanzania and Thailand, the per-nucleotide genomic mutability was estimated for the pfs230 and pfs48/45 antigens. A combine total of 49 loci were highly mutable for the pfs230 antigen. Out of these 49 loci, 12 loci were shared among all countries, 4 loci were shared only among African countries and 7 loci were found only in the Ghanaian population. Also, 9 loci were only found in the Thailand population. The pfs48/45 antigen contained a combine total of 8 loci with elevated mutability values of which 3 loci were found only in the Thailand population and the rest shared by at least two countries. These show that the pfs230 antigen is relatively more mutable than the pfs48/45 and provide leads into highly mutable loci that will require more detailed analysis with implications for efficacy of a transmission blocking vaccine efficacy. By Courage Adobor, Harpreet Kaur, Brodsky Elia, Anita Ghansah Poster Presentation Page - 🤍 The Bioinformatics fellowship is a structured program that guides students through various areas of Big Data Bioinformatics Research using practical examples. During this program, we go through several high-quality research publications and learn about applications of computational biology in projects these publications describe. This kind of an experience allows beginners to try computational biology techniques on public domain data, making it possible to work with large files and extract meaningful information from patient samples, animal models, cell-lines, and microbiota. The program provides support and mentorship, therefore it is an intensive research program involving training tasks, access to our online sessions and a guide on the implementation of learned skills to proposed research ideas. Learn more about Omics Research Fellowship Program - 🤍 Register now - 🤍
Watch the Full Video at 🤍 Plasmodium falciparum Gametocyte Culture and Mosquito Infection Through Artificial Membrane Feeding - a 2 minute Preview of the Experimental Protocol Abhai K Tripathi, Godfree Mlambo, Sachie Kanatani, Photini Sinnis, George Dimopoulos Johns Hopkins University, Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute, W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Bloomberg School of Public Health; Detailed investigations on mosquito stages of malaria parasites are critical to design effective transmission blocking strategies. This protocol demonstrates how to effectively culture infectious gametocytes and then feed these gametocytes to mosquitoes to generate mosquito stages of P. falciparum. Visit 🤍?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=social_global&utm_campaign=reseach-videos-2022 to explore our entire library of 14,000+ videos of laboratory methods and science concepts. JoVE is the world-leading producer and provider of science videos with the mission to improve scientific research and education. Millions of scientists, educators, and students at 1500+ institutions worldwide, including schools like Harvard, MIT and Stanford benefit from using JoVE's extensive library of 14,000+ videos in their research,education and teaching. Subscribe to our channel: 🤍
Plasmodium falciparum: ring form in thin blood smear
Walter and Eliza Hall Institute Wednesday seminar: 6 July 2011 Professor Ivo Mueller Laboratory Head Infection and Immunity Walter and Eliza Hall Institute
Prix Alvarenga, de Piauhy 2018 Les stratégies de contrôle du paludisme ciblent souvent les personnes qui souffrent le plus de la maladie, et non celles qui sont à l'origine de la transmission. Ceci est en partie dû à notre compréhension limitée du réservoir infectieux du paludisme - c’est-à-dire des individus responsables de la transmission du parasite Plasmodium falciparum aux moustiques dans des zones d’endémie. Les travaux de recherche décrits dans mon mémoire ont évalué la prévalence de l’infectivité du paludisme chez des humains pendant les saisons sèche et humide. En outre, l'exposition aux moustiques Anopheles, qui est essentielle pour la transmission du paludisme, a également été quantifiée. De plus, afin de comprendre l’importance des interventions visant à réduire le potentiel infectieux de l’homme vers les moustiques, l'utilisation de la primaquine pour interrompre la transmission du paludisme a été étudiée. Des infections expérimentales de moustiques ont été réalisées pour déterminer l’infectivité du paludisme chez des individus sélectionnés au hasard dans deux villages du Burkina Faso. Des analyses moléculaires ont été utilisées pour quantifier les densités de parasites, y compris les gamétocytes, la forme parasitaire responsable de la transmission aux moustiques. Moins de 10% de la population était infectieuse pour les moustiques. Ces résultats sont présentés en détail dans ce mémoire, avec des données provenant d'autres régions d'Afrique. Pour évaluer l'exposition aux vecteurs du paludisme, des moustiques gorgés ont été collectés à l'intérieur des maisons d'un village au Burkina Faso. Une analyse PCR ciblant neuf microsatellites humains et un marqueur spécifique du sexe a été utilisé pour identifier les sources humaines de repas sanguin de moustiques. Bien que le nombre de piqûres de moustiques varie considérablement d'une personne à l'autre, les adultes en moyenne reçoivent plus de piqûres de moustiques que les enfants. Cela suggère que, malgré le fait qu’ils soient moins infectieux pour les moustiques, les adultes contribuent largement à la transmission du paludisme dans les zones d'endémie. Un essai clinique pour tester l'effet de la primaquine sur l'infectivité du paludisme a aussi été réalisé au Burkina Faso. L’infectivité avant et après le traitement avec la primaquine a été quantifiée par des infections expérimentales de moustiques afin d’évaluer la réduction de la transmission pour les moustiques. Les individus recevant de la primaquine ont éliminé les gamétocytes plus rapidement que ceux recevant de l’artéméther-luméfantrine seul. Les infections expérimentales de moustiques suggèrent cependant que le potentiel de transmission est considérablement diminué après l'administration de l’artéméther-luméfantrine. Dans mon mémoire, je discute de ces résultats et de la manière dont ils peuvent être utilisé pour les programmes de contrôle.
O professor da USP, Rafael Guido, ministrou a sessão científica "Descoberta de novos inibidores de Plasmodium falciparum como candidatos a fármacos para a malária", em 21 de maio, pelo Zoom. Confira!
This clip is an excerpt from a Hemepath Board Review video by special guest, Dr. Jeanette Ramos (full video here: 🤍 If you missed Dr. Ramos's first guest lecture discussing the histology and immunostaining patterns of non-neoplastic lymph nodes, check it out here: 🤍 If you like Dr. Ramos's cases and teaching style, be sure to follow UAMS Hematopathology on social media, as she often contributes to their accounts: - 🤍 - 🤍 A complete organized library of all my videos, digital slides, pics, & sample pathology reports is available here: 🤍 (dermpath) & 🤍 (bone/soft tissue sarcoma pathology). This video is geared towards medical students, pathology/internal medicine/family practice residents, hematology or hematopathology fellows, or practicing pathologists or hematologists. Of course, this video is for educational purposes only and is not formal medical advice or consultation. Neither Dr. Ramos nor Dr. Gardner have any special inside knowledge of the content of the path/heme/hemepath/USMLE board examinations. This video is subjectively labeled as a "board review" purely because we believe these topics are potentially testable entities, not because we have any knowledge about the frequency that they will show up on actual board exams. Please subscribe to my channel to be notified of new pathology teaching videos. Follow me on: Snapchat: JMGardnerMD Twitter: 🤍JMGardnerMD Instagram: 🤍JMGardnerMD Kiko: 🤍 Facebook: 🤍
complications of fALCIPARUM malaria parasitology mbbs plasmodium fALCIPARUM #mbbs #neetpg #falciparummalaria Cerebral malaria: Occurs due to plugging of brain capillaries by the rosettes of sequestered parasitized RBCs leading to vascular occlusion and cerebral anoxia Cerebral malaria manifests as diffusesymmetric encephalopathy characterized by generalized convulsion in 10% of adults and up to 50% of children Muscle tone and tendon reflexes are reduced Other defects are retinal hemorrhages, neurologic sequelae, repeated seizures, and rarely deep coma Signs of focal neurologic and meningeal irritations are absent High mortality rate—20% among adults and more than 15% among children Pernicious malaria: It is characterized by blackwater fever, algid malaria and septicemic malaria Black water fever: This syndrome is characterized by sudden intravascular hemolysis followed by fever, hemoglobinuria and dark urine it occurs following quinine treatment to subjects previously infected with P. falciparum The precise mechanism is not known Autoimmune mechanism has been suggested. Antibodies develop against parasitized and quininized RBCs. With subsequent infection and quinine treatment, there is immunocomplex formation followed by complement mediated massive destruction of both parasitized and nonparasitized RBCs Algid malaria: Characterized by cold clammy skin, hypotension, peripheral circulatory failure and profound shock Septicemic malaria: Characterized by high degree of prostration, high grade fever with dissemination of the parasite to various organs leading to multi organ failur Pulmonary edema and adult respiratory distress syndrome Hypoglycemia Renal failure Bleeding/disseminated intravascular coagulation Severe jaundice Severe normochromic, normocytic anemia Acidosis
Plasmodium falciparum uses multiple strategies to evade the human immune response. While infection is established by a small number of sporozoites that are largely ignored by the immune system, the abundant blood stage parasites use multiple and polymorphic variant surface antigens to avoid clearance and subvert the immune response. From volunteers immunized with irradiated sporozoites, we identified a family of potent neutralizing antibodies that bind to multiple sites of the CSP protein and represent a new tool for prophylaxis and for vaccine design. Using a systematic search for antibodies that bind broadly to infected erythrocytes, we discovered, in 10% of malaria-exposed individuals, a new class of antibodies generated by insertions of genomic DNA encoding human inhibitory receptors (LAIR1 or LILRB1) into antibody genes (at the V-DJ junction or in the switch region). LAIR1- and LILRB1-containing antibodies bind to different families of parasite RIFINs and opsonize infected erythrocytes. These findings demonstrate that the parasite uses multiple RIFINs to target inhibitory receptors as part of its evasion strategy. They also illustrate a new mechanism of diversification based on the insertion of host receptors into immunoglobulin genes, leading to the production of receptor-based antibodies, with implications for antibody and B cell engineering.
Hello, in this video I will demonstrate morphology of Plasmodia Falciparum Gametocyte in Peripheral blood thin smear and thick smear. P. Falciparum Gametocyte is Banana shaped. Thick smear is superior over thin smear for malaria diagnosis. Hope you will Enjoy the video! Like, share & subscribe the channel! Thank you.
Hello friends here is the simple explanation of falciparum malaria complications with easy mnemonic. Please do subscribe the channel and give your feedback in the comment section. Thankyou.
The Plasmodium falciparum male gametocyte protein P230p, a paralog of P230, is vital for ookinete formation and mosquito transmission. Catherin Marin-Mogollon et al (2018), Scientific Reports 🤍 Two members of 6-cysteine (6-cys) protein family, P48/45 and P230, are important for gamete fertility in rodent and human malaria parasites and are leading transmission blocking vaccine antigens. Rodent and human parasites encode a paralog of P230, called P230p. While P230 is expressed in male and female parasites, P230p is expressed only in male gametocytes and gametes. In rodent malaria parasites this protein is dispensable throughout the complete life-cycle; however, its function in P. falciparum is unknown. Using CRISPR/Cas9 methodology we disrupted the gene encoding Pfp230p resulting in P. falciparum mutants (PfΔp230p) lacking P230p expression. The PfΔp230p mutants produced normal numbers of male and female gametocytes, which retained expression of P48/45 and P230. Upon activation male PfΔp230p gametocytes undergo exflagellation and form male gametes. However, male gametes are unable to attach to red blood cells resulting in the absence of characteristic exflagellation centres in vitro. In the absence of P230p, zygote formation as well as oocyst and sporozoite development were strongly reduced (~98%) in mosquitoes. These observations demonstrate that P230p, like P230 and P48/45, has a vital role in P. falciparum male fertility and zygote formation and warrants further investigation as a potential transmission blocking vaccine candidate. Good channel: 🤍 Subscribe, like and comment. Good website: 🤍 Bookmark, subscribe and comment.
#Treatment Regimens #Malaria #Plasmodium Vivax Falciparum
An Indian doctor talks about how people can take precautions when Plasmodium Falciparum (PF) Malaria is all around in Bareilly. More than 1,500 patients with high fever and shivering bouts have been admitted to the district hospital in UP’s Bareilly. This footage is part of the broadcast stock footage archive of Wilderness Films India Ltd., the largest collection of HD imagery from South Asia. The collection comprises of 150, 000+ hours of high quality broadcast imagery, mostly shot on 4K, 200 fps slow motion, Full HD, HDCAM 1080i High Definition, Alexa and XDCAM. Write to us for licensing this footage on a broadcast format, for use in your production! We are happy to be commissioned to film for you or else provide you with broadcast crewing and production solutions across South Asia. We pride ourselves in bringing the best of India and South Asia to the world... Please subscribe to our channel wildfilmsindia on Youtube 🤍youtube.com/wildfilmsindia for a steady stream of videos from across India. Also, visit and enjoy your journey across India at 🤍clipahoy.com , India's first video-based social networking experience. Reach us at rupindang [at] gmail [dot] com and admin🤍wildfilmsindia.com To SUBSCRIBE click the below link: 🤍youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=WildFilmsIndia Like & Follow Us on: Facebook: 🤍facebook.com/WildernessFilmsIndiaLimited Website: 🤍wildfilmsindia.com
#sicklecellanemia #sicklecellanaemia #sicklecelldisease #drvinoth #science #medicaltips #medi360 #shortsfeed #shortscreator #shortsyoutube #viralshorts #trendingshorts #healthylifestyle
Revivez la quatrième conférence des travaux scientifiques de Guyane. 💊 Une journée réalisée par l'université de la Guyane, financée par l'ARS de Guyane. Retrouvez nous sur notre page facebook pour plus d'informations et pour nous contacter: 🤍 Réalisation Nicolas Godefroy - Chahut Production 🎬 👀 🤍
Alena Pance is a senior staff scientist in the malaria group at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. In this film she introduces malaria as a parasitic disease and describes how to work safely in the lab with malaria parasites including culturing them using human blood and preparing them on microscope slides. The Malaria programme uses a variety of different research methods to understand the biology of the Plasmodium parasite, its mosquito vector and the human host. This scientific approach aims to find solutions to malaria control such as discovering new drugs and vaccines. This is one of a series of Life in the lab films providing a more in-depth insight to some of the laboratory processes used by different teams at the Wellcome Sanger Institute. The film has been developed to help support the OCR Cambridge Technical Level 3 in laboratory skills.
29° SMART Meeting Milan - MiCo Milano South Wing - May 9-11, 2018 FOCUS ON EXOTIC DISEASES AT THE TIME OF MIGRATIONS Focus sulle Malattie Esotiche al Tempo delle Migrazioni Diagnosis and management of severe imported P. falciparum malaria Diagnosi e gestione della malaria di importazione da P. falciparum grave
Access to an accurate and timely diagnosis is critical to preventing a malaria infection from progressing to severe illness and death. WHO recommends prompt malaria diagnosis either through microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for all patients with suspected malaria. The hundreds of millions of RDTs sold each year are designed to detect a specific protein in a person’s blood. Parasites that have mutated to no longer express that protein can evade detection by RDTs. Such mutated parasites have now been reported in more than 35 countries – mainly in Africa and South America – and they are complicating malaria diagnosis and treatment. This video describes the problem of Histidine Rich Protein 2 (HRP2) gene deletions and what can be done to address it. More information: 🤍
Once a gene is identified as potentially refractory for malaria, it must be evaluated for its role in preventing Plasmodium infections within the mosquito. This protocol illustrates how the extent of plasmodium infections of mosquitoes can be assayed.
At present, the RTS,S/AS02 vaccine is undoubtedly the most advanced and promising vaccine candidate. The designation “RT” refers to approximately 190 amino acids from the C-terminus of the P. falciparum CSP and “S” refers to the hepatitis-B surface antigen. RTS,S virus-like particles form when the RTS malaria–hepatitis B fusion protein is coexpressed with S antigen alone in yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The adjuvant AS01 consists of liposomes plus MPL plus QS21. An earlier version of the RTS,S vaccine was adjuvanted with AS02 (an oil–water emulsion plus MPL plus QS21). In Phase IIa trials, RTS,S/AS02 protected 40–86% of malaria-naive individuals after artificial challenge and two proof-of-concept Phase IIb trials demonstrated a partial delay of infection, a 30% reduction in clinical episodes of malaria, and reduction in severe malaria by 58%. A phase III trial of RTS,S has been conducted in 11 countries of sub-Saharan Africa from March 2009 through January 2011, in 15460 children in two age categories (6–12 weeks of age and 5–17 months of age), with a dose of 25 µg in a three-dose schedule delivered intramuscularly at the ages of 0, 1, and 2 months. The first results have shown a reduction in the total number of episodes of clinical malaria by 55.1% and reduction in severe malaria by 47%, both in the older group. However, recalculating the trial data has shown that RTS,S protected just 35–36% after 12 months and combining the results of both age groups cut the reduction in severe malaria to 34.8%. Serious adverse events, such as convulsions and meningitis, was significantly higher in the vaccinated group, although the data are too preliminary to draw firm conclusions. The mortality was similar in vaccinated and control groups. Nevertheless, these initial reports have been considered as encouraging, raising the hopes of an effective malaria vaccine in the near future. Support my channel by contributing at 🤍 Join this channel to get access to perks: 🤍