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How do the CPUs at the heart of our computers actually work? This video reveals all, including explanations of CPU architecture, buses, registers, machine code, assembly language, and the fetch-decode-execute instruction cycle. If you enjoy this video, you may also like my previous episodes: Explaining SSDs: 🤍 Explaining RAM: 🤍 Explaining PCIe slots: 🤍 Python Coding Introduction: 🤍 HTML Introduction: 🤍 More videos on computing and related topics can be found at: 🤍 You may also like my ExplainingTheFuture channel at: 🤍 Chapters: 00:00 Introduction 00:35 CPU Architecture 03:46 Running Programs 07:54 Modern CPUs 09:45 Wrap
It's impossible to think how the CPU came to be. Learn how it works, here! Author's Website: 🤍 See the Book: 🤍 See the 6502 CPU Simulation: 🤍 For anyone annoyed by the breaths between speaking, try this unlisted version with edited audio: 🤍 Download the PowerPoint file used to make the video: 🤍 The CPU design used in the video is copyrighted by John Scott, author of the book But How Do It Know?. There are a few small differences between the CPU in the video and the one used in the book. Those differences are listed below but they should not detract from your understanding of either. CONTROL UNIT - This component is called the Control Section in the book. It is called Control Unit here simply because that is a more common name for it that you might see used elsewhere. LOAD INSTRUCTION - In this video, what's called a LOAD instruction is actually called a DATA instruction in the book. The Scott CPU uses two different instructions to move data from RAM into the CPU. One loads the very next piece of data (called a DATA instruction in the book) and the other uses another register to tell it which address to pull that data from (called a LOAD instruction in the book). The instruction was renamed in the video for two reasons: 1) It might be confusing to hear that the first type of data we encounter in RAM is itself also called DATA. 2) Since the LOAD instruction from the book is a more complex concept, it was easier to use the DATA instruction in the video to introduce the concept of moving data from RAM to the CPU . IN and OUT INSTRUCTIONS - In the Scott CPU, there is more involved in moving data between the CPU and external devices than just an IN or an OUT instruction. That process was simplified in the video to make the introduction of the concept easier. ACCUMULATOR - The register that holds the output of the ALU is called the Accumulator in the book. That is the name typically used for this register, although it was simply called a register in the video. MEMORY ADDRESS REGISTER - The Memory Address Register is a part of RAM in the book, but it is a part of the CPU in the video. It was placed in the CPU in the video as this is generally where this register resides in real CPUs. JUMP INSTRUCTIONS - In the book there are two types of unconditional JUMP instructions. One jumps to the address stored at the next address in RAM (this is the one used in the video) and the other jumps to an address that has already been stored in a register. These are called JMP and JMPR instructions in the book respectively. MISSING COMPONENT - There is an additional component missing from the CPU in the video that is used to add 1 to the number stored in a register. This component is called "bus 1" in the book and it simply overrides the temporary register and sends the number 1 to the ALU as input B instead. REVERSED COMPONENTS - The Instruction Register and the Instruction Address Register are in opposite positions in the diagrams used in the book. They are reversed in the video because the internal wiring of the control unit will be introduced in a subsequent video and keeping these registers in their original positions made that design process more difficult. OP CODE WIRING - The wires used by the control unit to tell the ALU what type of operation to perform appear near the bottom of the ALU in the video, but near the top of the ALU in the book. They were reversed for a similar reason as the one listed above. The wiring of the ALU will be introduced in a subsequent video and keeping these wires at the top of the ALU made the design process more difficult.
Learn how the central processing unit (CPU) works in your computer. Compare performance and processor architecture between the Intel and Apple Silicon M1 chips with 🤍AZisk #compsci #tech #100SecondsOfCode 🔥 Subscribe to Alex's Channel 🔥 🤍 🔗 Resources Apple Silicon Breakdown 🤍 Visual CPU 🤍 Clock Speed 🤍 📚 Chapters 00:00 How a CPU Works 01:06 Instruction Cycle 02:25 Apple M1 vs Intel i9 06:10 Performance Benchmarking 9:06 Best Dev Stacks for M1 10:12 Worst Stacks for M1 11:55 Final Summary 🔥 Watch more with Fireship PRO Upgrade to Fireship PRO at 🤍 Use code lORhwXd2 for 25% off your first payment. 🎨 My Editor Settings - Atom One Dark - vscode-icons - Fira Code Font
Go to 🤍 for a 30-day free trial and expand your knowledge. The first 200 people will get 20% off their annual premium membership. Have you ever wondered what it would be like to journey through the inside of your computer? In this video, we're taking you on a 3D animated adventure to every piece of computer hardware inside a desktop computer. You'll also see a nanoscopic view of the transistors inside the CPU and GPU. This video is like a biology dissection lab; instead, we're opening up a computer and seeing all the various computer hardware inside. Do you want to support in-depth engineering and technology education? Join us at: 🤍 Website: 🤍ion On Facebook: 🤍 On Twitter: 🤍 On Insta: 🤍 Table of Contents: 00:00 - 3D Computer Teardown 01:03 - Central Processing Unit CPU 03:12 - Motherboard 05:20 - CPU Cooler 06:00 - Desktop Power Supply 07:22 - Brilliant Sponsorship 08:52 - Graphics Card and GPU 11:52 - Computer Teardown Process 13:14 - DRAM 14:02 - Solid State Drives 15:04 - Hard Disk Drive HDD 15:52 - Computer Mouse 16:15 - Computer Keyboard 16:30 - Outro Special thanks to Máximo Balestrini for help with the CPU & GPU VLSI Visualizations 🤍 Key Branches from this video are: How does DRAM Work? How do SSDs Work? How do Smartphone CPUs Work? Erratum: Animation: Mike Radjabov Script: Teddy Tablante Twitter: 🤍teddytablante Modeling: Prakash Kakadiya Voice Over: Phil Lee Sound Design: 🤍drilu.mx Sound Effects and Music Editor: David Pinete Supervising Sound Editor and Mixer: Luis Huesca Animation built using Blender 3.4.1 🤍 References: 27 Main Parts of Motherboard and its Function 🤍 Cortex-A77- Microarchitectures - ARM 🤍 GeForce GTX 1080 Ti Review - Pascal GPU Architecture 🤍 Intel's 10th Generation Desktop CPUs have arrived - Still on 14nm 🤍 Intel Core i9 - 10850K Processor 🤍 Insights into DDR5 Sub-Timings and Latencies 🤍 Mechanical Keyboard Guide 🤍 Nvidia GP102 🤍 Teardown of a PC Power Supply 🤍 Wikipedia contributors. "Back End of Line". "Central Processing Unit". "Computers". "Dynamic Random-Access Memory". "Motherboard". Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, Visited March 22nd 2022 #Computer #Hardware #Teardown
The fetch-execute cycle is the basis of everything your computer or phone does. This is literally The Basics. • Sponsored by Dashlane —try 30 days for free at: 🤍 Thanks to Dashlane for sponsoring the video! If you're techie enough to watch this video, you should be using a password manager. Get a 30-day free trial at 🤍 MORE BASICS: 🤍 MINOR CORRECTIONS: In the graphics, "programme" should be "program". I say "Mac instead of PC"; that should be "a phone instead of a PC". And most importantly, I say "every sixth cycle": that should be "every ninth". Fortunately, none of these materially affect the content of the video! Written with Sean Elliott 🤍 Directed by Tomek Graphics by Mooviemakers 🤍 Audio mix by Haerther Productions 🤍 I'm at 🤍 on Twitter at 🤍 on Facebook at 🤍 and on Instagram as tomscottgo
Check out the new Logitech MX Anywhere 3S Mouse and MX Keys S wireless keyboard at Best Buy through the links below. Save 20% with purchase of a computer, laptop, monitor or tablet. Offer ends June 30th. Logitech MX Anywhere 3S Mouse at Best Buy: 🤍 Logitech MX Keys S at Best Buy: 🤍 Purchases made through some store links may provide some compensation to Linus Media Group. Learn how CPU scheduling works and it helps them juggle multiple tasks and use multiple cores. Leave a reply with your requests for future episodes. ► GET MERCH: 🤍 ► LTX 2023 TICKETS AVAILABLE NOW: 🤍 ► GET EXCLUSIVE CONTENT ON FLOATPLANE: 🤍 ► SPONSORS, AFFILIATES, AND PARTNERS: 🤍 FOLLOW US ELSEWHERE - Twitter: 🤍 Facebook: 🤍 Instagram: 🤍 TikTok: 🤍 Twitch: 🤍
Visit Our Parent Company EarthOne ➤ 🤍 This video is the third in a multi-part series discussing computing. In this video, we’ll be discussing classical computing, more specifically – how the CPU operates and CPU parallelism. 00:00 Intro [0:27-4:57] How The CPU Operates - Starting off we'll look at, how the CPU operates, more specifically - the basic design of a CPU, how it communicates with memory, the stages it executes instructions in as well as pipelining and superscalar design. [4:57-8:00] Computing Parallelism - Following that we'll discuss, computing parallelism, elaborating on the hardware parallelism previously discussed as well as discussing software parallelism through the use of multithreading. A More Detailed Look At The CPU ➤ 🤍 🤍 Become A Member & Help Us Grow ➤ 🤍 Learn More About Us Here ➤ 🤍 Join Our Discord ➤ 🤍 Soundtrack ➤ ♫ 00;00 "The Final Blow" by aKu ♫ 00;27 "Sun" by HOME ♫ 02;52 "If I'm Wrong" by HOME ♫ 04;57 "Resonance" by HOME ♫ 08;00 "June" by Aire Atlantica Producer ➤ Ankur Bargotra Follow The Producers Social Media Accounts ➤ 🤍 🤍 🤍
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Central processing Unit | What is CPU | How CPU works |CPU scheduling in operating system |Animation Find out who is the workhorse (read mule) inside your computer that works promptly and consistently at your command. - cpu scheduling in operating system, what is cpu, how cpu works, what is a cpu, control unit, fcfs, scheduling algorithm in os, fcfs scheduling algorithm in os
Ever wonder how the operator in your smartphone works? For your next PCB design, check out Gerber Labs: They provide high quality, quick turnaround PCBs 🤍 Use the discount code BranchEducation15 to save 15% on your next order! In this video we explore the primary processor or the System on a Chip or SoC which is essentially the brain of your smartphone. We'll explore the different sections of the SoC and then see how data moves around. Next, we'll explore what happens when you take a picture, and how the SoC processes this data. Following that, we'll take a look at the CPU section, and finally, we'll see how these SoC are designed and manufactured. Do you want to support in-depth engineering and technology education? Support us on: 🤍 Website: 🤍ion On Facebook: 🤍 On Twitter: 🤍 On Insta: 🤍 Or Join us on YouTube Memberships: 🤍 Script, Modelling, Animation, Editing- Teddy Tablante Twitter: 🤍teddytablante Voice Over- Phil Lee Table of Contents: 00:00 - The Magic of the SoC 01:13 - Layout of this Episode 02:07 - Notes & Details of the SoC 05:15 - All the Sections of the System on a Chip 08:47 - Processing an Image on the SoC 15:54 - Thank you Gerber Labs 16:40 - Inside the CPU Block 18:59 - Designing and Manufacturing the System on a Chip 22:41 - What it looks like form a nanoscopic view 23:38 - Wrap-up Key Branches from this video are: Microchips, CPUs, Integrated Circuits, Erratum: 12min 10sec- Enligsh should be English! Ugh such a blunder. Maybe it's a test to see who reads the footnotes. And then another test to see who reads the erratum... Animation built using Blender 2.90.1 🤍 Post with Adobe Premiere Pro Model References: Blend Swap: Yohello Book References: Abderazek, Ben Abdallah. Advanced Multicore System-On-Chip, Architecture, on-Chip Network, Design. Springer ARM, Arm Cortex-177 Core Technical Reference Manual Revisions r1p1 Birger, Maxim. Snapdragon Platforms overview feat. MSM7x30 chipset. Codrescu, Lucian. Qualcomm Hexagon DSP: An Architecture optimized for mobile multimedia and communications. Qualcomm Technologies Pulli, Kari. VP Computational Imaging Light. Camera Processing Pipeline Santanu, Kundu. Santanu, Chattopadhyay. Network-On-Chip. CRC Press. Veena S. Chakravarthi. A Practical Approach to VLSI System on Chip (SoC) Design. Springer Yang, Kent. PoP Details. Music Attribution: Sunburst, Tobu & Itro is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License 🤍 🤍 Internet References: Tech Insights, Apple iPhone 11 Pro Max Teardown: 🤍 Anand Tech 🤍 Die Photos from Birdman 86, Pauli Rautakorpi: 🤍 Wiki Chips: 🤍 Processor Die Photos: 🤍 Wikipedia contributors. "System on A Chip" "ARM" "Samsung Electronics." "ARM Architecture" "Reduced Instruction Set Computer" "Dynamic Random Access Memory" "Semiconductor device fabrication" "Color Depth" Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, Visited November 2020 Model Attribution: Blend Swap: Clock Creator Yohello #CPU #TRANSISTOR #SoC
Today we’re going to build the ticking heart of every computer - the Central Processing Unit or CPU. The CPU’s job is to execute the programs we know and love - you know like GTA V, Slack... and Power Point. To make our CPU we’ll bring in our ALU and RAM we made in the previous two episodes and then with the help of Carrie Anne’s wonderful dictation (slowly) step through some clock cycles. WARNING: this is probably the most complicated episode in this series, we watched this a few times over ourselves, but don't worry at about .03Hz we think you can keep up. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: 🤍 Want to know more about Carrie Anne? 🤍 Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - 🤍 Twitter - 🤍 Tumblr - 🤍 Support Crash Course on Patreon: 🤍 CC Kids: 🤍 Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - 🤍 Twitter - 🤍 Tumblr - 🤍 Support Crash Course on Patreon: 🤍 CC Kids: 🤍
View full lesson: 🤍 How does a computer work? The critical components of a computer are the peripherals (including the mouse), the input/output subsystem (which controls what and how much information comes in and out), and the central processing unit (the brains), as well as human-written programs and memory. Bettina Bair walks us through the steps your computer takes with every click of the mouse. Lesson by Bettina Bair, animation by Flaming Medusa Studios.
Bubbles in the pipeline? Some of the basic operations at the heart of the CPU explained by Dr Steve Bagley. EXTRA BITS: 🤍 Why CPUs Need Caches: 🤍 The Perfect Code: 🤍 Microsoft Hololens: 🤍 🤍 🤍 This video was filmed and edited by Sean Riley. Computer Science at the University of Nottingham: 🤍 Computerphile is a sister project to Brady Haran's Numberphile. More at 🤍
SERIES LINK - 🤍 In this multi-part series, we explore the evolution of the microprocessor and its astonishing growth in processing power over the decades. In Part 1, we learn about the first commercial CPU, the Intel 4004 and examine how it and similar early CPU's work at the fundamental level. During the mid-1960s a revolution in miniaturization was kick-started. The idea of packing dozens of semiconductor-based transistors on to a single silicon chip spawned the integrated circuit. It laid the groundwork for a complete paradigm shift in how modern society would evolve. In March of 1971, the commercial launch of a new semiconductor product set the stage for this new era. Composed of a then-incredible 2,300 transistors, the Intel 4004 central processing unit or CPU was released. For comparison, ENIAC, the first electronic computer built just 25 years earlier could only execute 5,000 instructions a second. But what made the 4004 so powerful wasn’t just its 1800% increase in processing power - it only consumed 1 watt of electricity, was about ¾” long and cost $5 to produce in today’s money. This was miles ahead of ENIAC’s, cost of $5.5 million in today’s money, 180kW power consumption, and 27-ton weight. In order to understand how a CPU derives its processing power, let examine what a CPU actually does and how it interfaces with data. For all intents and purposes, we can think of a CPU as an instruction processing machine. They operate by looping through three basic steps, fetch, decode, and execute. As CPU designs evolve these three steps become dramatically more complicated and technologies are implemented that extend this core model of operation. FETCH In the fetch phase, the CPU loads the instruction it will be executing into itself. A CPU can be thought of as existing in an information bubble. It pulls instructions and data from outside of itself, performs operations within its own internal environment, and then returns data back. This data is typically stored in memory external of the CPU called Random Access Memory or (RAM). Software instructions and data are loaded into RAM from more permanent sources such as hard drives and flash memory. But at one point in history magnetic tape, punch cards, and even flip switches were used. BUS The mechanism by which data moves back and forth to RAM is called a bus. A bus can be thought of as a multi-lane highway between the CPU and RAM is which each bit of data has its own lane. But we also need to transmit the location of the data we’re requesting, so a second highway must be added to accommodate both the size of the data word and the address word. These are called the data bus and address bus respectively. In practice, these data and address lines are physical electrical connections between the CPU and RAM and often look exactly like a superhighway on a circuit board. REGISTER The address of the memory location to fetch is stored in the CPU, in a mechanism called a register. A register is a high-speed internal memory word that is used as a “notepad” by CPU operations. It’s typically used as a temporary data store for instructions but can also be assigned to vital CPU functions, such as keeping track of the current address being accessed in RAM. Because they are designed innately into the CPU’s hardware, most only have a handful of registers. Their word size is generally coupled to the CPU’s native architecture. DECODE Once an instruction is fetched the decode phase begins. In classic RISC architecture, one word of memory forms a complete instruction. This changes to a more elaborate method as CPUs evolve to complex instruction set architecture, which will be introduced in part 2 of this series. BRANCHING Branching occurs when an instruction causes a change in the program counter’s address. This causes the next fetch to occur at a new location in memory as oppose to the next sequential address. OPERAND Opcodes sometimes require data to perform its operation on. This part of an instruction is called an operand. Operands are bits piggybacked onto an instruction to be used as data. Let say we wanted to add 5 to a register. The binary representation of the number 5 would be embedded in the instruction and extracted by the decoder for the addition operation. EXECUTION In the execution phase, the now configured CPUs is triggered. This may occur in a single step or a series of steps depending on the opcode. CLOCKS In a CPU these 3 phases of operation loop continuously, workings its way through the instruction of the computer program loaded in memory. Gluing this looping machine together is a clock. A clock is a repeating pulse use to synchronize a CPU’s internal mechanics and its interface with external components. The CPU clock rate is measured by the number of pulses per second or Hertz. SUPPORT NEW MIND ON PATREON 🤍
The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is at the heart of all our computing devices: desktops, laptops, and smartphones. But how does it work? Please, let me explains! Twitter: 🤍 Instagram: 🤍 What is a CPU? How a CPU works How does a CPU actually work? How do CPUs work? What is a Central Processing Unit (CPU)? - Music: Last Summer by Ikson: 🤍
Signup for your FREE trial to Wondrium here: 🤍 - Highly recommended! Background videos: "What makes a Quantum computer so powerful?": 🤍 Chapters: 0:00 - What is a transistor? 1:40 - Review of computer components 2:58 - Intel 4004 processor 5:08 - How CPU and ALU processes information 6:56 - How logic gates work and are constructed 9:22 - How are two numbers added? 13:02 - How do quantum computers work? 16:56 - How to learn quantum computing in depth Summary: Any device that you might be watching this video on is made possible by something similar to a simple light switch. It's either on or off. Yes, or no, true or false - a transistor. The brain of your computer, called the CPU or central processing unit, is made up of billions of transistors. How does a computer work? The main component of a computer, that actually computes, is called the central processing unit, or CPU. The computational part of the CPU is called the ALU or arithmetic logic unit. ALU is composed of logic gates. Logic gates consist of groups of transistors. These logic gates do the actual computation in CPUs. In this video, we look more closely inside a CPU. We look at the first commercially available processor called the Intel 4004. It was a 4-bit processor. This means it could work with inputs formed by 4 bits. Thus, the processor could accept an input like 1011. This is also called a word. A word is an object made from 1’s and 0’s with which the CPU works. The Intel 4004 used 4-bit words, and consisted of 2250 transistors (Modern processors are 64-bit and consist of billions of transistors). Instruction tell the ALU how to process the inputs. How does an ALU work? If we want to add two numbers, 2 and 3, first these numbers will be represented by 4 binary bits. In binary code, 2 is 0010 and 3 is 0011. These are the input bits, also called operands. To add them together, the instruction code must tell the ALU to add them. This will be specified by some flag that tells it what to do with the operands it receives. Flags are also bits. What is a logic gate? It takes in two bits, or two binary numbers, then depending on the type of logic gate it is, the gate will output the appropriate result bit. Physically these gates are made from a bunch of transistors connected in the appropriate way for whatever gate you want to make. A simple example would be the AND gate. In the AND gate, if the two incoming bits are 1, then the output is 1, otherwise the output is false. Another gate is the OR gate. Here if either, or both of the incoming two bits are 1, then the output is 1. Otherwise, the output is zero. If we only want to output a 1 or true, if and only if one input is 1 and the other is 0, then we use an XOR gate. There are several more gates but with the AND, OR and XOR gate we can make a circuit which can add numbers. I explain how AND, OR and XOR gates are built using transistors. How do logic gates to add numbers? 2 XOR gates, 2 AND gates and one OR gate can add a number. This is called a full adder circuit. I explain how a full adder works. Similarly, logic gates can be constructed to do other things. A computer can do all kinds of cool things, but at its core, it is just doing first grade math. How do quantum computers differ from classical computers? Quantum computers in principle do the same computations as a classical computer, but instead of bits, it uses qubits. Qubits are bits that are in a superposition of both 0 and 1, so they can potentially take on an infinite number of values between 0 and 1. Qubits could be made with one of many quantum objects like electrons or photons, that have some binary property like spin. Because qubits can be in a state of both 0 and 1 at the same time, qubits can store 2 to the power of the equivalent number of bits. So, 3 qubits can hold the same amount of data as 23 or 8 classical bits. And just 10 qubits would be able to store the same data as 2^10 or 1024 classical bits. A qubit is stationary. So the bits do not flow in quantum computers like they do in classical. So the logic gate has to be applied onto the stationary qubits. This can be done using photons - microwave pulses. Instead of classical logic gates, quantum computers use quantum logic gates. In the quantum case we can also make a full adder to add two numbers, but instead of AND gates, we use Toffoli gates. And instead of OR or XOR gates, we use CNOT gates. #quantumcomputer #howcomputerswork The “magic” of the quantum computer comes from the fact that the quantum logic gates can work with qubits. So instead of adding just 2 numbers together, we could do 4 additions at the same time. If we had 3 qubits, we could do 8 additions at once, and so on.
A beginner level comprehensive tutorial which explains CPU fundamentals in a simplified language. Computer Architecture and Organization explained. Learn about CPU registers and their working.
In the first episode of this three-part long series about computers, we will take a look at the construction and functionality of a computer. We will start our journey at the transistor scale and move up to higher levels of abstractions until we built a whole CPU. On our journey, we will meet logic gates and see how they work. With their help, we will be able to make circuits, which can calculate for us. We will meet a few of them, but eventually, we will unite them in an ALU. We will learn to speak with our ALU in its unique language. Then we will pair off our ALU with registers, a control unit, and RAM. This fellowship of computer parts can work off our programs. Because this fellowship of computer parts is ingenious, it is called "CPU". Sadly, it can only speak in 0's and 1's, so we have to learn its language to write our programs. I've hidden some easter eggs, so pause the video sometimes, if you have nothing better to do with your life. Be the first one to find one of my three favorite music artists I hid in the video. The first person who writes a comment on them gets a heart. Programs I used: Audacity - audio editing DaVinci Resolve - video editing Inkscape - Vector graphics All sound effects are creative commons 0 from fresound.org. Vector graphics, animation, and voice-over are all done by myself.
A whistle-stop tour of how computers work, from how silicon is used to make computer chips, perform arithmetic to how programs run and computer graphics are displayed. Contents: 00:00 - Introduction 00:55 - Transistors 08:05 - Logic gates 11:34 - Binary numbers 16:55 - Memory and clock 24:56 - Instructions 29:30 - Loops 33:55 - Input and output 41:28 - Conclusion Further watching if you are interested Computerphile has many great videos, such as this in-depth look at floating point numbers: 🤍 For many in-depth computer subjects I highly recommend Brian Will's channel: 🤍 Particularly his videos on graphics: 🤍
Check out Crucial NVMe SSDs Here: 🤍 Have you ever wondered why it takes time for computers to load programs or video games? Also, ever wonder why your computer uses both DRAM as well as SSDs when they both are used to store data? Well, most of that time is spent moving data from a hard drive or SSD into DRAM or Dynamic Random Access Memory, which is the working memory inside your computer. In this video, we're going to take a very deep dive into DRAM. We'll see how it connects to other parts of your computer, and then we'll explore how DRAM can store gigabytes of data in nanoscopic capacitors. After that, we'll cover the three main operations of DRAM: Reading, Writing, and Refreshing. And finally, we'll dive deep into some more complex aspects of DRAM that make it so amazingly fast such as folded DRAM architecture. We'll also learn what burst buffers are, and why there are so many banks of DRAM memory cells. Do you want to support in-depth engineering and technology education? Support us at: 🤍 Website: 🤍ion On Facebook: 🤍 On Twitter: 🤍 On Insta: 🤍 Thanks to Nathan, Peter, and Jacob for helping research and review this video! They're doctoral students at the Florida Institute for Cybersecurity Research, and you can learn more about their program here: 🤍 Table of Contents: 00:00 - Intro to Computer Memory 00:47 - DRAM vs SSD 02:23 - Loading a Video Game 03:25 - Parts of this Video 04:07 - Notes 06:10 - Intro to DRAM, DIMMs & Memory Channels 10:43 - Crucial Sponsorship 12:09 - Inside a DRAM Memory Cell 15:28 - An Small Array of Memory Cells 17:41 - Reading from DRAM 19:38 - Writing to DRAM 21:55 - Refreshing DRAM 23:16 - Why DRAM Speed is Critical 25:06 - Complicated DRAM Topics: Row Hits 26:21 - DRAM Timing Parameters 27:51 - Why 32 DRAM Banks? 29:17 - DRAM Burst Buffers 30:58 - Subarrays 32:02 - Inside DRAM Sense Amplifiers 34:24 - Outro to DRAM Key Branches from this video are: How do Solid State Drives Work? Erratum: At 10m 08s : Cicruit || Should be Circuit At 21m 54s : 32 Bank Groups || Should be 32 Banks. Script, Modeling, Animation: Teddy Tablante Twitter: 🤍teddytablante Animation: Mike Radjabov Modeling: Prakash Kakadiya Voice Over: Phil Lee Sound Design: 🤍drilu.mx Music Editing: Luis Zuleta Sound Effects: Paulo de los Cobos Supervising Sound Editor and Mixer: Luis Huesca Animation built using Blender 3.1.2 🤍 Post with Adobe Premiere Pro References: DDR5 SDRAM. JEDEC Standard. JESD79-5 July 2020 Dr. Cutress, Ian. "Insights into DDR5 Sub-Timings and Latencies". Oct 6th, 2020. Dr. El-Maleh, Aiman. "Functions and Functional Blocks: Digital Logic Design" College of Computer Sciences and Engineering. King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals. Hajimiri, Ali. Et al. "Design Issues in Cross-Coupled inverter Sense Amplifier". IEEE. Stanford University 1998 IBM. Understanding DRAM Operation. IBM 1996. Jacob, Bruce. NG, Spencer W. Wang, David T. "Memory Systems: Cache, DRAM, Disk." Elsevier Inc. 2008 Keeth, Brent. Baker, R Jacob. Johnson, Brian. Lin, Feng. "DRAM Circuit Design: Fundamental and High-Speed Topics." IEE Press 2008. Kim, Yoongu et. Al. "A Case for Exploiting Subarray-Level Parallelism in DRAM". Carnegie Mellon University Lee, Donghuk et.al. "Tiered-Latency DRAM: A Low Latency and Low Cost DRAM Architecture. Carnegie Mellon University Micron. "DDR4 SDRAM. MT40A4G4. MT40A2G8. MT40A1G16. 16Gb: x4, x8, x16 DDR4 SDRAM Features" Micron Technologies 2018 Micron. "DDR5 SDRAM Product Core Data Sheet DDR5SDRAM Features." Micron Technologies 2020 Ryan, Kevin J. Morzano, Christopher K. Li, Wen. "Write Data Masking for Higher Speed DRAMS" US Patent 6532180 B2 Mar. 11 2003. Shilov, Anton. "SK Hynix Details DDR5-6400". ANANDTECH. Feb 26th, 2019. Sunami, Hideo. "Dimension Increase in Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Memories and Transistors". From intechopen.com. From "Advances in Solid State Circuit Technologies". Apr 2010. Wikipedia contributors. "CAS Latency". "DDR5 SDRAM". "Dynamics Random-Access Memory". "Memory Timing". "Synchronous Dynamic Random-Access Memory". Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, Visited Nov 2022 #DRAM #CPU #Computer
In this video you will learn more about Central processing Unit/Microprocessor.
we use Central processing units on our laptops, smartphones and so on. in this video, you can easily understand how does a CPU work. Let me know your thoughts about the video in the comment section and don't forget to hit that like button😉 Stay tuned for our next videos, peace!🖐🤞 Follow us on: •Instagram: 🤍rasamdowski •Twitter: 🤍rasamdowski •Facebook: 🤍rasamdowski •Telegram: 🤍rasamdowski the video was made possible using 🤍freepik.com
How a CPU works. An introduction to reading assembler instructions. 🤍 -=[ 🔴 Stuff I use ]=- → Microphone:* 🤍 → Graphics tablet:* 🤍 → Camera#1 for streaming:* 🤍 → Lens for streaming:* 🤍 → Connect Camera#1 to PC:* 🤍 → Keyboard:* 🤍 → Old Microphone:* 🤍 US Store Front:* 🤍 -=[ ❤️ Support ]=- → per Video: 🤍 → per Month: 🤍 -=[ 🐕 Social ]=- → Twitter: 🤍 → Website: 🤍 → Subreddit: 🤍 → Facebook: 🤍 -=[ 📄 P.S. ]=- All links with "*" are affiliate links. LiveOverflow / Security Flag GmbH is part of the Amazon Affiliate Partner Programm. #ReverseEngineering
Se ti interessa guardare il nostro video in lingua italiana clicca questo link: 🤍 • Find out more about our project: 🤍 • Here are some products installed by our technicians: 🤍 JAES is a company specialized in the maintenance of industrial plants with a customer support at 360 degrees, from the technical advice to maintenance, until final delivery of the industrial spare parts. Linkedin: 🤍 Facebook: 🤍 Silicon is the second most common element on Earth, followed by oxygen; it can be easily found on the sand, but as we’ve learned in our previous videos it is also used for its conducting properties. In fact, it is the main element of photovoltaic cells, diodes, thyristors and transistors; the latter in particular (in the mosfet version) is the primary component for the realization of the central processing unit, which we all know as the CPU. In this video we will explain how a CPU is made, how it works and why it is the basis of every digital electronic device. Let's start with the infinitely small. By using sophisticated technologies, silicon is purified and molded into thin layers called wafers, after which atoms of different elements are added. This operation is called doping. In this way, thanks to the impurities found in the crystal lattice, silicon becomes a semiconductor. Silicon belongs to the 14th group of the periodic table and every atom has four valence electrons, forming a very regular crystal lattice. If dopant atoms from elements of the 13th group with three valence electrons are added, such as boron or gallium, a we obtain a P-type semiconductor and we create a hole in the structure. On the other hand, if elements of the 15th group like phosphorus or arsenic are added, which have five valence electrons, an N-type semiconductor is created and there will be a free electron in the crystal lattice. A Mosfet transistor is composed of: - a doped silicon wafer as shown, with one P-type and two N-type semiconductor parts; - a layer of silicon oxide which acts as an insulator; - and a conductive layer of polycrystalline silicon Every transistor has three terminals: - the central one is connected to the polycrystalline silicon and is called "gate" - while the other two are connected to the two parts of N-type wafers, and are called source and drain The contact area between a P-type semiconductor with an N-type semiconductor is called the “depletion region”. Within this zone, free electrons from the N layer will fill the holes in the P layer, creating an area where there are no free electrons or holes. When a situation of equilibrium is reached, the depletion zone of the N side becomes positively charged and the zone of the P side becomes negatively charged. Thanks to this reaction, an electric field created, which serves as a barrier to prevent further electrons exchange, and acts like an insulator. In fact, if we add an electric charge to the two external terminals, electricity cannot flow. However, if we add an electric charge to the gate, we form an electric field, which attracts the free electrons of the P-type layer. In this way, a new N-type area is formed nearby the gate which serves as a communication between source and drain so that the electric current can flow. Mosfet transistor can therefore control the current flow and then switch on and off. This simple operation is the basis of all technology, where every switch on or off is interpreted as 0 or 1. To put it in other words, it is the binary code of our computer systems. In fact, each cpu has billions of transistors organized in different ways, so as to form the most varied logic gates. Logic gates placed in succession can solve the most difficult computational problems. Moreover, every second the transistors turn on and off at tremendous speed, measured in gigahertz (GHz), that is, billions of times per second. This speed is called the clock, and the higher it is, the more powerful is the cpu, at the expense of temperatures. Now, processed data can transit through the motherboard to the various components of the PC such as: graphics card, solid state memory, USB controller, power management circuits, wireless card, etc... Thanks to the advancement of technology, all these devices are now based on a single silicon chip thanks to the System-on-a-Chip (SoC), a system installed on an integrated circuit in which a single chip combines, in addition to the central processor, also high chipsets and controllers such as the one for RAM and GPU memory. In this way, less energy is used, less physical space is needed and devices have better performances and reliability.
How do CPUs take code electrical signals and translate them to strings of text on-screen that a human can actually understand? Freshbooks message: Head over to 🤍 and don’t forget to enter Tech Quickie in the “How Did You Hear About Us” section when signing up for your free trial.
How a CPU is Made - CPU Manufacturing Central Processing Unit #CPU Global Foundries shows how a CPU is made with all major steps of the process. Source: 🤍 Subscribe Here because amazing videos will come soon: 🤍 How a CPU is made how to make CPU make cpu how cpu made CPU How a CPU working from sand to CPU making CPU Central processing unit CPU factory how CPUs are made how cpu is manufactured how cpu is made hd how cpu works what is CPU clean room intel cpu manufacturing process how intel make cpu make cpu cpu factory what is a cpu? AMD intel electronics hardware cpu hardware computers Nvidia Notebook Ram Laptop cpu industry Benyamin Amiri
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What is a Processor? In this video we explain what a Processor is, how it works, and how it integrates with other internal and external components. A common analogy used for describing a computer's processor or CPU is thinking of the computer as a human body, and the CPU is its brain. From this point forward we’ll refer the processor as a CPU and vice versa. The CPU is in charge of processing the computer's tasks by constantly resolving mathematical and logical problems. Watch the video to learn more. To get more of our best content on IT careers and IT certifications, go to 🤍 Be sure to leave any questions or comments below! See More Videos and Subscribe: 🤍 Website: 🤍 Facebook: 🤍 Twitter: 🤍
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View full lesson: 🤍 In many ways, our memories make us who we are, helping us remember our past, learn and retain skills, and plan for the future. And for the computers that often act as extensions of ourselves, memory plays much the same role. Kanawat Senanan explains how computer memory works. Lesson by Kanawat Senanan, animation by TED-Ed.
A little exploration of some of the fundamentals of how computers work. Logic gates, binary, two's complement; all that good stuff! Series playlist: 🤍 Simulation tool (work in progress): 🤍 Source code: 🤍 Support the channel: 🤍 Resources and Inspiration: 🤍 🤍 🤍 Chapters: 00:00 Intro 00:50 Logic Gates 03:09 The Simulation 05:06 Binary Numeral System 06:16 Binary Addition Theory 07:24 Building an Adder 12:11 Negative Numbers Theory 15:08 Building the ALU 17:43 Outro Music: "A Quiet Place" by Jordan White "A New Perspective" by Ryan Smart "Beyond the Horizon" by Sounds Like Sander "Crystal Bursts" by Cody Martin "Air" by Assaf Ayalon "Elastic Vibe" by Ziv Moran "Gotcha!" by Avocado Junkie Images: 🤍
A common piece of advice for PC gamers is that you don't need tons of cores - but why are games often unable to take advantage of CPUs with many cores in the first place? TunnelBear message: TunnelBear is the easy-to-use VPN app for mobile and desktop. Visit 🤍 to try it free and save 10% when you sign up for unlimited TunnelBear data. Follow: 🤍 Join the community: 🤍
What is a CPU, and how did they become what they are today? Boyd Phelps, CVP of Client Engineering at Intel, takes us through the history of CPU architecture, key architecture concepts like computing abstraction layers, Instruction Set Architecture (ISA), and more. Watch part two here: 🤍 Boyd Phelps has worked on some of the most well-known chip designs in Intel’s history, from Nehalem to Haswell to Tiger Lake and more. Architecture All Access is a master class technology series featuring Senior Intel Technical Leaders taking an educational approach to the historical impact and future innovations of key architectures that will continue to be at the center of ‘world-changing technology that enriches the lives of every person on earth.’ If you are interested in CPUs, FPGAs, Quantum Computing and beyond, subscribe and hit the bell to get new episode notifications. Chapters: 0:00 CPUs Are Everywhere 0:52 Meet Boyd Phelps, CVP of Client Engineering 1:58 Topics We're Covering 2:32 What Is A CPU? 5:39 CPU Architecture History 6:40 Bug Aside 7:30 Back to CPU History 11:13 Computing Abstraction Layers 14:58 Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) 18:28 What's in Part Two? Subscribe now to Intel Technology on YouTube: 🤍 Connect with Intel Technology: Visit Intel Technologies WEBSITE: 🤍 Follow Intel Technology on TWITTER: 🤍 Architecture All Access: Modern CPU Architecture Part 1 – Key Concepts 🤍
Computer ရဲ့ ဦးနှောက်လို့ခေါ်ဆိုနိုင်တဲ့ CPU ဘယ်လိုအလုပ်လုပ်လဲ? ဆက်လက် ကြည့်ရှုသင့်တဲ့ ဗွီဒီယိုများ How Computers Work? 🤍 Evolution of Computer ကွန်ပျူတာ အဆင့်ဆင့်ပြောင်းလဲခဲ့ပုံ သမိုင်းကြောင် 🤍 Self-Learning 🤍 5 Industries and Job Opportunities for Myanmar Youth အနာဂတ်မှာ ခေတ်စားလာမယ့် အလုပ်အကိုင် အခွင့်အလမ်းများ 🤍 ကျောင်းပိတ်ထားတဲ့အချိန်မှာ လူငယ်တွေအတွက် ဘာအခွင့်အလမ်းတွေရှိလဲ ? 🤍 Microsoft Headquarter မှာProgram Managerအဖြစ်အလုပ်လုပ်ခဲ့တဲ့မြန်မာတစ်ယောက်နဲ့တွေ့ဆုံခြင်း အပိုင်း(၁) 🤍 Microsoft Headquarter မှာProgram Managerအဖြစ်အလုပ်လုပ်ခဲ့တဲ့မြန်မာတစ်ယောက်နဲ့တွေ့ဆုံခြင်း အပိုင်း(၂) 🤍 Microsoft Headquarter မှာProgram Managerအဖြစ်အလုပ်လုပ်ခဲ့တဲ့မြန်မာတစ်ယောက်နဲ့တွေ့ဆုံခြင်း အပိုင်း(၃) 🤍
Sure, you can build a PC, but you can't exactly build your own CPU. Fortunately, there are companies that can - here's how they do it! Freshbooks message: Head over to 🤍 and don’t forget to enter Tech Quickie in the “How Did You Hear About Us” section when signing up for your free trial. Follow: 🤍 Join the community: 🤍